Hereditary Succession, King Edward IV, King Henry IV, King Henry VII, King John, King Richard III, King Stephen of England, King William III, Lady Jane Grey, The Witan, The Witenagemot, Usurper, William the Conqueror
One aspect of the British Monarchy is hereditary succession. However, that is not the only rule governing the succession to the crown. There are laws controlling who can legally inherit the throne.
I often will see people claim that some descendant of either a King of England or a scion of the royal family is the rightful monarch of England or the United Kingdom due to hereditary succession. These claims mistakenly believe that hereditary descent is the main issue controlling the succession to the crown.
In the beginning of the monarchy, in the times of the Anglo-Saxon period prior to the Norman Conquest, the throne was elective. Succession was governed by the Witan.
The Witan (lit. ’wise men’) was the king’s council in Anglo-Saxon England from before the seventh century until the 11th century. It was composed of the leading magnates, both ecclesiastic and secular, and meetings of the council were sometimes called the Witenagemot.
Its primary function was to advise the king on subjects such as promulgation of laws, judicial judgments, approval of charters transferring land, settlement of disputes, election of archbishops and bishops and other matters of major national importance. The witan also had to elect and approve the appointment of a new king. Its membership was composed of the most important noblemen, including ealdormen, thegns, and senior clergy.
After the Witan was abolished by William the Conqueror succession was at first in the hands of the sovereign but eventually evolved into hereditary succession. Even when the succession became hereditary laws governing the succession also evolved.
This leads me to the next series I will examine. Where they a usurper? There were monarchs of England that may not have actually held the throne legally and were therefore usurpers to the crown.
Below are listed 9 people that claimed the throne and I will examine whether or not they were legally on the throne or were they a usurper?
William I the Conqueror, King of the English and Duke of Normandy
Stephen, King of the English, Count of Blois
John, King of England and Lord of Ireland
Henry IV, King of England and Lord of Ireland
Edward IV, King of England and Lord of Ireland
Richard III, King of England and Lord of Ireland
Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland
Lady Jane Grey
William III, King of England, Scotland and Ireland