Margrave Philipp I of Baden (November 6, 1479 – September 17, 1533) took over the administration of his father’s possessions Baden (Baden-Baden), Durlach, Pforzheim and Altensteig and parts of Eberstein, Lahr and Mahlberg in 1515 and ruled as governor until he inherited the territories in 1527. From 1524 till 1527, he also acted as an imperial governor in the second Imperial Government.
Philipp I was the fifth son of the Margrave Christopher I of Baden and Ottilie of Katzenelnbogen. His father intended to avoid splitting the inheritance and regarded Philipp as his most capable son, so he wanted Philipp to inherit the sovereignty over all his territories. He intended Philipp to marry with Joan, the heiress of Margrave Philipp of Hachberg-Sausenberg — a junior branch of the House of Baden branch line, so that Philipp would become sovereign of a considerable territory. The plan failed due to resistance of the French king, François I.
Because of the resistance of Philipp’s worldly brothers, Christopher later changed his will twice. Philip’s brother Bernhard III inherited the holdings on the left bank of the Rhine, his brother Ernst inherited the baronies Hachberg, Usenberg, Sausenburg, Rötteln and Baden Castle in Badenweiler in South Baden.
Margrave Philipp I married on January 3, 1503 Elisabeth of the Palatinate ( November 16, 1483 – June 24, 1522), the daughter of the Elector Philipp from his marriage to Margaret of Bavaria (1456–1501), daughter of Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut. Elisabeth of the Palatinate first married on February 12, 1496 in Heidelberg with Landgrave Wilhelm III of Hesse-Marburg (1471–1500). The nuptials took place in 1498 in Frankfurt am Main. The marriage was to last only three years ending with Wilhelm’s death in 1500.
Three years after the death of her first husband Elisabeth married on January 3, 1503 in Heidelberg with Margrave Philipp I of Baden-Sponheim (1479–1533). In a contract concluded in 1508 with respect to Elizabeth’s dowry, it was stipulated that the part of Sponheim that Baden had ceded to the Palatinate in 1463, was to be returned to Baden.
Philipp fought on the French side in the Italian Wars. In 1501 he commanded a ship in the French fleet, that supported the Venice in the war against the Turks.
During his reign, Philipp was confronted a wave of rebellions all over southern Germany. In a continuation of the Bundschuh movement and again under the leadership of Joss Fritz the peasants stood up and fought for their rights. This often led to abuse and violence. The rebels marched through Durlach to the monastery Gottesaue, which was looted and completely destroyed — under the eyes of the Margrave. He responded by attacking the homes of the rebels and for example in Berghausen three houses were set on fire.
The real aim, however, was the territory of the bishop Georg of Speyer, who finally escaped to the court of the Elector Palatine in Heidelberg. It wasn’t until 1525 that Elector Ludwig V and his army managed to end the insurgency. On May 25, 1525, Philipp I concluded the Treaty of Renchen with his peasants.
Philipp I died in 1533 without male heirs. Of his six children only his daughter Maria Jakobäa (1507–1580) survived him. In 1522, she married Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria. His two brothers, Ernest and Bernhard III divided his estate among themselves — the resulting margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden were reunified in 1771.