Austrian Empire, Dual Monarchy, Emperor Charles I-IV of Austria-Hungary and King of Croatia-Slavonia, Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary and King of Croatia-Slavonia, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the former kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom (the full civil administration was introduced in the Kingdom of Slavonia in 1745 and it was, as one of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, administratively included into both Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary, but it existed virtually until 1868).
The Croatian parliament, elected in a questionable manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia–Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian–Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba (Croatian–Hungarian Settlement, known also as Croatian–Hungarian Agreement or Hungarian–Croatian Compromise of 1868). This kingdom included parts of present-day Croatia and Serbia (eastern part of Syrmia).
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the only remaining open question of the new state was the status of Croatia, which would be solved with the Hungarian–Croatian Compromise of 1868 when agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on one hand and the Parliament of Croatia–Slavonia on the other hand, with regard to the composition by a joint enactment of the constitutional questions at issue between them.
Settlement reached between Hungary and Croatia was in Croatian version of the Settlement named “The Settlement between Kingdom of Hungary, united with Erdély on the one side and the Kingdoms of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia”.
In the Hungarian version neither Hungary, nor Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia are styled kingdoms, and Erdély is not even mentioned, while Settlement is named as the Settlement between Parliament of Hungary and Parliament of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia. Both versions received Royal sanction and both as such became fundamental laws of the state with constitutional importance, pursuant to article 69. and 70. of the Settlement.
With this compromise the parliament of personal union (in which Croatia–Slavonia had only twenty-nine, after 1881 – forty deputies) controlled the military, the financial system, Sea (Maritime) Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, and generally matters of commerce, customs, telegraphs, Post Office, railways, harbours, shipping, and those roads and rivers which jointly concern Hungary and Croatia–Slavonia.
Similarly to these affairs, trade matters including hawking, likewise with regard to societies which do not exist for public gain, and also with regard to passports, frontier police, citizenship and naturalization, the legislation was joint, but the executive in respect of these affairs was reserved to Kingdom of Croatia–Slavonia.
The citizenship was named “Hungarian–Croatian citizenship” in Croatia–Slavonia. In the end, fifty-five per cent of the total income of Croatia–Slavonia were assigned to the Joint Treasury (“Joint Hungarian–Croatian Ministry of Finance”).
The kingdom used the formal title of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, thereby pressing its claim on the Kingdom of Dalmatia. But Dalmatia was a Kronland within the imperial Austrian part of Austria-Hungary (also known as Cisleithania).
The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, which backed the Croatia–Slavonia in an effort to increase its share of the dual state.
The union between the two primarily Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however. According to the Article 53 of the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, governing Croatia’s political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary, the ban’s official title was “Ban of Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia”.
Not only would different parts of the Monarchy at the same time use different styles of the titles, but even the same institutions would at the same time use different naming standards for the same institution.
For instance, when the Imperial and Royal Court in Vienna would list the Croatian Ban as one of the Great Officers of State in the Kingdom of Hungary (Barones Regni), the style used would be Regnorum Croatiae, Dalmatiae et Slavoniae Banus, but when the Court would list the highest officials of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the title would be styled as “Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia” (putting Slavonia before Dalmatia and omitting “Kingdom”). The laws passed in Croatia–Slavonia used the phrase “Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia”.
The kingdom existed until 1918 when it joined the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which together with the Kingdom of Serbia formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The new Serb–Croat–Slovene Kingdom was divided into counties between 1918 and 1922 and into oblasts between 1922 and 1929. With the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, most of the territory of the former Kingdom of Croatia–Slavonia became a part of the Sava Banate and in 1939 autonomous Croatian Banate (Banovina of Croatia).