August III of Poland, Charles Philippe de Bourbon of France, Charles X of France and Navarre, Count of Artois, Felipe V of Spain, Louis XV of France and Navarre, Madame de Pompadour, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy
Charles X (Charles Philippe; October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was King of France and Navarre from September 16, 1824 until August 2, 1830. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile.
Charles Philippe of France was born in 1757, at the Palace of Versailles, the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis of France and his second wife, Princess Marie Josèpha of Saxony, a daughter of August III, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria, the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
August III of Poland as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire was known as Friedrich August II.
Dauphin Louis was eldest son of King Louis XV of France and Navarre, was widowed on July 22, 1746 when his wife, Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain, died giving birth to their only child, a daughter named after herself. Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain was the daughter of King Felipe V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. King Felipe V of Spain was a member of the House of Bourbon and a grandson of King Louis XIV.
King Fernando VI of Spain, Maria Teresa’s half-brother, had offered the Dauphin another sister, Infanta Maria Antonia. Instead, the King Louis XV of France and his mistress Madame de Pompadour wanted to open up diplomatic channels.
On January 10, 1747, Louis was married by proxy at Dresden to Maria Josepha of Saxony, the 15-year-old younger daughter of Augustus III, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and his wife Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria. A second marriage ceremony took place in person at Versailles on 9 February 1747.
Charles Philippe was created Count of Artois at birth by his grandfather, the reigning King Louis XV.
As the youngest male in the family, Charles Philippe seemed unlikely ever to become king. His eldest brother, Louis Joseph, Duke of Burgundy, died unexpectedly in 1761, which moved Charles Philippe up one place in the line of succession.
At the death of his father in 1765, Charles’s oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste, became the new Dauphin (the heir apparent to the French throne). Their mother Marie Josèphe, who never recovered from the loss of her husband, died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Charles Philippe an orphan at the age of nine, along with his siblings Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Clotilde (“Madame Clotilde”), and Élisabeth (“Madame Élisabeth”).
1773, Charles Philippe married Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy (1756 – 1805). Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy was born at the Royal Palace in Turin during the reign of her grandfather King Carlo Emmanuel III of Sardinia. She was the daughter of the heir apparent , Victor Amadeus and his wife Infanta Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain, the youngest daughter of Felipe V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese.
Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy was the couple’s third daughter and fifth child of twelve children. She was raised with her sister Princess Maria Giuseppina who was three years her senior and whom she would join later as a member of the Royal House of France, when her sister married Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence (and later King Louis XVIII of France and Navarre).
The future King Charles X, as the Count of Artois had previously been intended to marry Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon, the third and last child of Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and his wife, Charlotte de Rohan (1737–1760),
However, the union never took place as her rank was much lower than Artois who, as a male-line descendant of a French monarch, was a grandson of France, thus he was entitled to the style His Royal Highness. Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon, despite being born a princesse du sang; was from a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon and this only entitled her to the style of Her Serene Highness.
As her husband was the grandson of a king, the newly named Marie Thérèse of Savoy held the rank of granddaughter of France, and was commonly referred to by the simple style Madame la comtesse d’Artois.
Accession to the Throne
Charles’ brother King Louis XVIII’s health had been worsening since the beginning of 1824. Suffering from both dry and wet gangrene in his legs and spine, he died on September 16, of that year, aged almost 69. Charles, by now in his 67th year, succeeded him to the throne as King Charles X of France and Navarre.
In his first act as king, Charles attempted to unify the House of Bourbon by granting the style of Royal Highness to his cousins of the House of Orléans, who had been deprived of this by Louis XVIII because of the former Duke of Orléans’ role in the death of Louis XVI.
On May 29, 1825, King Charles X was anointed at the cathedral of Reims, the traditional site of consecration of French kings; it had been unused since 1775, as Louis XVIII had forgone the ceremony to avoid controversy. It was in the venerable cathedral of Notre-Dame at Paris that Napoleon had consecrated his revolutionary empire; but in ascending the throne of his ancestors, Charles reverted to the old place of coronation used by the kings of France from the early ages of the monarchy.