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  • From the Emperor’s Desk: I will expand on a couple these events later today.
  • 235 – Pope Pontian resigns. He is exiled to the mines of Sardinia, along with Hippolytus of Rome.
  • 351 – Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius.
  • 365 – Roman usurper Procopius bribes two legions passing by Constantinople, and proclaims himself emperor.
  • 935 – Duke Wenceslaus I of Bohemia is murdered by a group of nobles led by his brother Boleslaus I, who succeeds him.
  • 995 – Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, kills most members of the rival Slavník dynasty.
  • 1066 – William the Conqueror lands in England, beginning the Norman conquest.
  • 1106 – King Henry I of England defeats his brother Robert Curthose at the Battle of Tinchebray.
  • 1238 – King James I of Aragon conquers Valencia from the Moors. Shortly thereafter, he proclaims himself king of Valencia.
  • 1322 – Ludwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor, defeats Friedrich I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf.
  • 1844 – Oscar I of Sweden–Norway is crowned king of Sweden



1765 – Friedrich Christian II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (d. 1814)


  • 1197 – Heinrich VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1165)
  • 1213 – Gertrude of Merania, queen consort of Hungaria (b. 1185). She was Queen of Hungary as the first wife of Andrew II from 1205 until her assassination. She was regent during her husband’s absence.
  • 1330 – Elizabeth of Bohemia, queen consort of Bohemia (b. 1292). She became queen consort of Bohemia as the first wife of King John the Blind. She was the mother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia.
  • 1429 – Cymburgis of Masovia, duchess consort of Austria (b. 1394)