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1066 – Norwegian king Harald III Hardrada lands with Tostig Godwinson at the mouth of the Humber River and begins his invasion of England.

1137 – Eric III succeeds to the throne of Denmark. (c. 1120 – 27 August 1146) was the King of Denmark from 1137 until 1146. He was the grandson of Eric I of Denmark and the nephew of Eric II of Denmark, whom he succeeded on the throne. He abdicated in 1146, as the first and only Danish monarch to do so voluntarily. His succession led to a period of civil war between Sweyn III, Canute V, and Waldemar I.

1180 – Philippe II August becomes King of France at the age of fifteen. It was during Philippe II’s reign that the title of the monarch changed from King of the Franks to King of France.

1714 – King George I arrives in Great Britain after becoming king on August 1 after the death of Queen Anne.

1872 – King Oscar II accedes to the throne of Sweden–Norway.


1344 – Marie of France (September 18, 1344 – October 11, 1404) was the sixth child and second daughter of Jean II of France and Bonne of Bohemia. In 1364, Marie married Robert I, Duke of Bar.

1424 – birth of Eleanor of Portugal (September 18, 1434 – September 3,1467) was Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. A Portuguese infanta (princess), daughter of King Edward of Portugal and his wife Eleanor of Aragon, she was the consort of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III and the mother of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I.

1765 – Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from February 2, 1831 to his death in 1846.

1786 – Christian VIII of Denmark, was the king of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederik, King of Norway in 1814.


1137 – Eric II, king of Denmark was king of Denmark between 1134 and 1137. Eric was an illegitimate son of Eric I of Denmark, who ruled Denmark from 1095 to 1103. Eric the Memorable rebelled against his uncle Niels of Denmark, and was declared king in 1134.

1180 – Louis VII, King of the Franks. (1120 – September 18, 1180), called the Younger or the Young was King of the Franks from 1137 to 1180. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI (hence the epithet “le Jeune”) and married Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe.

1361 – Ludwig V, duke of Bavaria (b. 1315) called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1323 to 1351 and as Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death. From 1342 he also was co-ruling Count of Tyrol by his marriage with the Meinhardiner countess Margaret.

1675 – Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine (April 5, 1604 –September 18, 1675, Allenbach) was Duke of Lorraine from 1624 until his death in 1675, with a brief interruption in 1634, when he abdicated under French pressure in favor of his younger brother, Nicholas François.

1872 – Carl XV of Sweden (b. 1826) Carl XV of Sweden was also Carl IV of Norway (May 3, 1826 – September 18, 1872). Though known as King Carl XV in Sweden (and also on contemporary Norwegian coins), he was actually the ninth Swedish king by that name, as his predecessor Carl IX (reigned 1604–1611) had adopted a numeral according to a fictitious history of Sweden.