1st Duke of Clarence, 1st Duke of York, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, Anne de Mortime, Edmund of Langley, Edward III of England, John of Gaunt, Lionel of Antwerp, Pedro of Castile, Philippa of Hainault, Queen Philippa, Richard of Conisburgh, Wars of the Roses
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, KG (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was the fourth surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. Philippa of Hainault daughter of Willem I, Count of Hainaut, and Jeanne de Valois, Countess of Hainaut, granddaughter of Philippe III of France. She was one of eight children and the second of five daughters. Her eldest sister Margaret married Ludwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor in 1324.
Like many medieval English princes, Edmund gained his nickname from his birthplace: Kings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, to Anne de Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Edmund’s elder brother Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, that the House of York made its claim to the English throne in the Wars of the Roses. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent House of Lancaster, was formed from descendants of Edmund’s elder brother John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, Edward III’s third son.
On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the earl’s lands north of the Trent, primarily in Yorkshire. In 1359, he joined his father King Edward III on an unsuccessful military expedition to France and was made a knight of the Garter in 1361. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by his father.
Queen Philippa interceding for the Burghers of Calais by J.D. Penrose
Edmund took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s. In 1369, he brought a retinue of 400 men-at-arms and 400 archers to serve with John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, on campaigns in Brittany and Angoulême. The following year, he first joined Pembroke again on an expedition.
In the 1370s, English envoys entered into an alliance with King Fernando I of Portugal, where Portugal promised to attack Castile with the Lancastrian army. As a consequence of the Caroline War in France, John of Gaunt was forced to postpone the invasion of Castile. In 1381, Edmund finally led an abortive expedition to press John’s claim to Castile, joining with King Fernando in attacking Castile as part of the Fernandine Wars.
Edward III, King of England and Lord of Ireland
On August 6, 1385, Edmund of Langley was elevated to Duke of York. Edmund acted as Keeper of the Realm in 1394/95 when his nephew, King Richard II of England, campaigned in Ireland and presided over Parliament in 1395. He was also keeper of the realm in 1396 during the king’s brief visit to France to collect his child-bride Isabella of Valois.
The duke was left as Custodian of the Realm in the summer of 1399 when Richard II departed for another extended campaign in Ireland. In late June of that year, the exiled Henry Bolingbroke landed at Bridlington in Yorkshire. He raised an army to resist Bolingbroke, then decided instead to join him, for which he was well rewarded. He thereafter remained loyal to the new Lancastrian regime as Bolingbroke overthrew Richard II to become King Henry IV.
In Richard II’s will, Edmund was highly emphasised as the king’s heir despite the stronger claims of Henry of Bolingbroke and Edmund Mortimer. This was not due to any preference Richard had for Edmund, but rather a desire the king had to set Edmund’s son, Edward, on the throne. Towards the end of his life, in 1399, he was appointed Warden of the West March for a short period. Otherwise, from 1399 onward he retired from public life.
Edmund of Langley died in his birthplace and was interred at King’s Langley Priory; however, his tomb was relocated to the nearby All Saints’ Church, Kings Langley in 1575 after the priory had been dissolved. When the tomb was moved again during church restoration work in 1877, three bodies, one male and two female, were found inside. His dukedom passed to his eldest son, Edward. He was the last of his siblings to die, and lived the longest out of all of them.
The tomb of Edmund of Langley in All Saints’ Church, Kings Langley. The tomb was brought to the church in 1575 after the nearby King’s Langley Priory had been dissolved.
Langley’s first wife, Infanta Isabella of Castile, was a daughter of King Pedro of Castile and María de Padilla. She was also the sister of the Infanta Constance of Castile, the second wife of Langley’s brother John of Gaunt.
They had two sons and a daughter:
* Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York (c. 1373-1415), killed in action at the Battle of Agincourt.
* Constance of York (c. 1374-1416), great-grandmother of Queen Anne Neville.
* Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. 1385-1415), executed for treason by Henry V. Ancestor of Kings Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III of the House of York, and all succeeding monarchs of England beginning with King Henry VIII, whose mother Elizabeth of York was his great-granddaughter.
After Isabella’s death in 1392, Langley married his second cousin once removed Joan Holland, whose great-grandfather Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, was the half-brother of Langley’s grandfather Edward II; she and Langley were thus both descended from King Edward I. The young Joan was the granddaughter of his late sister-in-law Joan of Kent. The marriage produced no children.