365 – The Alamanni cross the Rhine and invade Gaul. Emperor Valentinian I moves to Paris to command the army and defend the Gallic cities.
996 – Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi (Austria in Old High German).
1179 – Philippe II is crowned King of France.
1348 – The anti-royalist Union of Valencia attacks the Jews of Murviedro on the pretext that they are serfs of the King of Valencia and thus “royalists.”
1688 – William III of Orange sets out a second time from Hellevoetsluis in the Netherlands to seize the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland from King James II of England during the Glorious Revolution.
1894 – Nicholas II becomes the new Tsar of Russia after his father, Alexander III, dies.
1948 – Athenagoras I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is enthroned.
1950 – Pope Pius XII claims papal infallibility when he formally defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.
846 – Louis the Stammerer, King of West Francia (d. 879)
1339 – Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (d. 1365)
1351 – Duke Leopold III of Austria (d. 1386)
1526 – Queen Catherine Jagellonica of Poland (d. 1583)
1549 – Anna of Austria, consort of Felipe II of Spain (d. 1580)
1778 – Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden (d. 1837)
1864 – Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna (d. 1918)
921 – Richard, Duke of Burgundy
955 – Henry I, Duke of Bavaria
1296 – Guillaume Durand, French writer (b. 1230)
1391 – Amadeus VII of Savoy (b. 1360)
1399 – John V, Duke of Brittany (b. 1339)
1700 – Carlos II of Spain (b. 1661)
1894 – Tsar Alexander III of Russia (b. 1845)