42 BC – Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Mark Antony and Octavian decisively defeat Brutus’s army. Brutus commits suicide.
425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
502 – The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
1086 – At the Battle of az-Zallaqah, the army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI.
1157 – The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
64 BC – Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Roman general (d. 12 BC)
1503 – Isabella of Portugal, queen of Spain and empress of Germany (d. 1539)
1516 – Charlotte de Valois, princess of France (d. 1524)
1634 – Hedvig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden (d. 1715)
1715 – Tsar Peter II of Russia (d. 1730)
42 BC – Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman senator (b. 85 BC)
1893 – Alexander Battenberg, prince of Bulgaria (b. 1857)