1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry III.
1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain.
1812 – Napoleon I of France retreats from Moscow.
1813 – The Battle of Leipzig concludes, giving Napoleon Bonaparte one of his worst defeats.


1582 – Dmitry Ivanovich, Russian Tsarevich (d. 1591)
1658 – Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1704)


1216 – King John of England (b. 1167)
1587 – Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1541)
1889 – King Louis of Portugal (b. 1838)