1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1793 – Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.
1815 – Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

Births:

1711 – Elisabeth Teresa of Lorraine, queen of Sardinia (d. 1741)
1825 – Marie of Prussia, Queen of Bavaria (d. 1889)
1874 – Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, (d. 1899)
1893 – King Carol II of Romania, (d. 1953)
2005 – Prince Christian of Denmark

Deaths:

412 – Pope Theophilus of Alexandria
898 – Lambert, Holy Roman Emperor
1002 – Otto-Henry, Duke of Burgundy (b. 946)
1080 – Rudolf of Rheinfelden, German noble (b.c. 1025)
1389 – Pope Urban VI

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