610 – Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor.
1511 – Formation of the Holy League of Ferdinand II of Aragon, the Papal States and the Republic of Venice against France.
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1830 – Creation of the Kingdom of Belgium after separation from the Netherlands.
1910 – Manuel II, the last King of Portugal, fled to Gibraltar when a revolution erupted in Lisbon and the Portuguese First Republic was proclaimed the next day.

Births:

1160 – Alys, Countess of the Vexin, daughter of Louis VII of France (d. 1220)
1276 – Margaret of Brabant, Queen of Germany (d. 1311)
1289 – King Louis X of France (d. 1316)
1331 – James Butler, 2nd Earl of Ormonde (d. 1382)
1379 – King Henry III of Castile (d. 1406)
1550 – King Charles IX of Sweden (d. 1611)
2005 – Prince Emmanuel of Belgium

Deaths:

1052 – Vladimir of Novgorod (b. 1020)
1221 – William III Talvas, Count of Ponthieu (b. 1179)
1250 – Herman VI, Margrave of Baden (b. 1226)
1743 – John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, Scottish soldier (b. 1678)

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