331 BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
959 – Edgar the Peaceable becomes king of all England.
1553 – Coronation of Queen Mary I of England.
1814 – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoléon the previous spring.

Births:

208 – Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor (d. 235)
1207 – King Henry III of England (d. 1272)

Deaths:

959 – King Edwy of England
1040 – Alan III, Duke of Brittany (poisoned) (b. 997)
1189 – Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar
1310 – Beatrice of Burgundy, Lady of Bourbon (b. 1257)
1404 – Pope Boniface IX (b. 1356)

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