235 – Pope Pontian resigns. He and Hippolytus, church leader of Rome, are exiled to the mines of Sardinia.
351 – Battle of Mursa Major: the Roman Emperor Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius.
365 – Roman usurper Procopius bribes two legions passing by Constantinople, and proclaims himself Roman emperor.
935 – Saint Wenceslas is murdered by his brother, Boleslaus I of Bohemia.
995 – Members of Slavník’s dynasty – Spytimír, Pobraslav, Pořej and Čáslav are murdered by Boleslaus’s son, Boleslaus II the Pious.
1066 – William the Bastard (as he was known at the time) invades England beginning the Norman Conquest.
1106 – The Battle of Tinchebrai – Henry I of England defeats his brother, Robert Curthose.
1238 – Muslim Valencia surrenders to the besieging King James I of Aragon the Conqueror.
1322 – Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf.
1448 – Christian I is crowned king of Denmark.
1844 – Oscar I of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Sweden.
1868 – Battle of Alcolea causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France.
876 – Louis the German, King of Eastern Francia (b. 804)
935 – Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia (b. 907)
1104 – Pedro I, king of Aragon and Navarre (b. 1068)
1197 – Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1165)