Events:

191 – Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf – Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.
1228 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II landed in Acre, Palestine and started the Sixth Crusade, which resulted in a peaceful restitution of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1571 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, is arrested for his role in the Ridolfi plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
1818 – Carl III of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Norway, in Trondheim.
1822 – Dom Pedro I declares Brazil independent from Portugal on the shores of the Ipiranga Brook in São Paulo.

Births:

1438 – Louis II, Landgrave of Hesse (d. 1471)
1533 – Queen Elizabeth I of England (d. 1603)
1674 – Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (d. 1728)
1683 – Mary Anne of Austria (d. 1754)
1817 – Queen Louise of Hesse-Kassel of Denmark (d. 1898)

Deaths:

1151 – Geoffrey of Anjou (b. 1113)
1312 – King Ferdinand IV of Castile (b. 1285)
1464 – Frederick II, Elector of Saxony (b. 1412)
1496 – King Ferdinand II of Naples (b. 1469)

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