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Kingdoms come and go don’t they? There are only monarchies left in Europe, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Kingdom of Spain, The Kingdom of The Netherlands, The Kingdom of Belgium, The Kingdom of Denmark, The Kingdom of Norway and the Kingdom of Sweden. There are also the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, The Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Principality of Andorra and the Vatican City. Many of the present day kingdoms are descendent of smaller kingdoms that were swallowed up when nation states united in their specific territories and formed more centralized governments.

Minoan – (c. 2700 BC to c. 1600 BC)
Mycenaean – (c. 1900 BC to c. 1100 BC)
Athens – {c. 1400 BC – 338 BC)
Sparta – (c. 900 BC – 146 BC)
Macedonian Kingdom – (808 BC – 146 BC)
Roman Kingdom – (753 BC – 510 BC)
Ancient Corinth – (747 BC – 146 BC)
Ancient Thebes – (c. 500 BC – 335 BC)
Kingdom of Mide – (76 – 1171)
Kingdom of Commagene – (163 BC – 72 CE)
Kingdom of Dacia – (82 BC – 106 CE)
Frankish Kingdom – (3rd century – 10th century)
First Kingdom of Burgundy – (4th century)
Kingdom of Galicia (Suebic Kingdom of Galicia) – (410 – 584, 910 — 1833)
Visigothic Kingdom – (418 – 721)
Kingdom of Kent – (450 – 871)
Kingdom of Sussex – (477 – 825)
Ostrogothic Kingdom – (493 – 553)
Kingdom of Ceredigion – (5th century – early 10th century)
Kingdom of Powys – (5th century – 1160)
Kingdom of Gwynedd – (5th century – 1282)
Kingdom of Wessex – (519 – 927)
Kingdom of Essex – (527 – 812)
Kingdom of Mercia – (527 – 919)
Kingdom of Italy – (568 – 1806, 1805–1814, 1861–1946)
Kingdom of the Lombards – (568 – 774)
Kingdom of Bernicia – (6th century)
Kingdom of the East Angles – (6th century – 917)
Northumbria – (654 – 878)
Kingdom of Asturias – (718 – 925)
Kingdom of Abkhazia – (780 – 1008)
Kingdom of Navarre – (824 – 1620)
Kingdom of Scotland – (843 – 1707, 1660 — 1707)
Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia – (845 – 1045)
Kingdom of Castile – (850 – 1230)
Kingdom of Jórvík – (876 – 954)
Kingdom of Provence – (879 – 933)
Hereditary Kingdom of Norway – (9th century – 11th century)
Kingdom of Alba – (900 – 1286)
Kingdom of León – (910 – 1230)
Kingdom of Galicia – (410 – 584, 910 — 1833)
Kingdom of Croatia – (c.925 – 1102, 1527 – 1868)
Kingdom of England – (927 — 1649, 1660 — 1707)
Kingdom of Arles (Second Kingdom of Burgundy) – (933 – 1378)
Kingdom of Deheubarth – (950 – 1197)
Kingdom of Viguera – (970 – 1005)
Kingdom of Georgia -(978 – 1223)
Kingdom of Lori – (979 – 1118)
Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages – (1000–1570)
Kingdom of Mann and the Isles – (1079–1266)
Kingdom of Poland – (1025–1385, 1385–1569)
Kingdom of Aragon – (1035–1707)
Kingdom of Duklja – (1053–1100)
Kingdom of Cyprus – (1192–1489)
Kingdom of Sicily – (1130–1816)
Kingdom of Portugal – (1139–1910)
Kingdom of Thessalonica – (1204–1224)
Kingdom of Bohemia – (1212–1918)
Kingdom of Valencia – (1237–1707)
Kingdom of Lithuania – (1251 – 1263, 1918)
Kingdom of Majorca – (1262–1349)
Kingdom of Albania – (1272–1368)
Kingdom of Naples – (1285–1816)
Kingdom of Bosnia – (1377–1463)
Kingdom of Poland – (1025–1385, 1385–1569)
Kingdom of Imereti – (1455 – 1810)
Kingdom of Kakheti – (1465–1762)
Eastern Hungarian Kingdom – (1526–1571)
Kingdom of Croatia – (c.925 – 1102, 1527 – 1868)
Royal Hungary – (1570–1867)
Kingdom of Ireland – (1541–1651, 1659–1801)
Kingdom of Livonia – (1570–1578)
Kingdom of Ireland – (1541–1651, 1659–1801)
Kingdom of Scotland – (843 – 1707, 1660 — 1707)
Kingdom of Prussia – (1701–1918)
Kingdom of Great Britain – (1707–1801)
Kingdom of Sardinia – (1720–1861)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland – (1801–1922)
Kingdom of Italy – (568 – 1806, 1805–1814 1861–1946)
Kingdom of Bavaria – (1806–1918)
Kingdom of Saxony – (1806–1918)
Kingdom of Württemberg – (1806–1918)
Kingdom of Westphalia – (1807–1813)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies – (1811–1861)
Kingdom of Hanover – (1814–1866)
Kingdom of Norway – (1814–1905)
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves – (1815–1822)
Kingdom of Greece – (1832–1924, 1935–1974)
Kingdom of Italy – (568 – 1806, 1805–1814 1861–1946)
Kingdom of Romania – (1881–1947)
Kingdom of Serbia – (1882–1918)
Kingdom of Bulgaria – (1908–1946)
Kingdom of Montenegro – (1910–1918)
Kingdom of Lithuania – (1251–1263, 1918)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia – (1918–1943)
Kingdom of Iceland – (1918–1944)
Modern Kingdom of Hungary – (1000 — 1918, 1919 — 1944, 1944 — 1946)
Albanian Kingdom – (1928–1939)
Kingdom of Greece – (1832–1924, 1935–1974)
Kingdom of Hungary – (1920–1946)
Kingdom of the Netherlands – (1954–present)
United Kingdom – (1922-Present)

This is an interesting list and I will be looking into some of these extinct kingdoms in the future. I always wonder about the future of monarchies. The ones that survive have been able to change and adapt to modern times. Although from an historical angle I do enjoy reading about those times when monarchs ruled with power, I do think it makes sense for them to be above partisan politics. With the United States in the midst of a very heated election year and with both sides at the throats of one another, I have great admiration for those monarchies in Europe that have Heads of State that can rise about political bickering. So I hope the current monarchies of Europe can remain as long as possible. Heck, I wouldn’t mind seeing countries like France, Italy, Germany, Portugal and Russia return to their roots and restore their monarchies.

I am taking a much needed vacation and I will be back to my regular postings on Monday, September 17th.

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