1278 – Ladislaus IV of Hungary and Rudolph I of Germany defeat Premysl Ottokar II of Bohemia in the Battle of Marchfield near Dürnkrut in (then) Moravia.
1444 – Battle of St. Jakob an der Birs: A vastly outnumbered force of Swiss Confederates is defeated by the Dauphin Louis (future Louis XI of France) and his army of ‘Armagnacs’ near Basel.
1978 – Papal conclave, 1978 (August): Pope John Paul I is elected to the Papacy.


1469 – Ferdinand II of Naples (d. 1496)
1540 – King Magnus of Livonia (d. 1583)
1676 – Sir Robert Walpole, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1745)
1819 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Consort of the United Kingdom (d. 1861)
1826 – Princess Alexandra of Bavaria (d. 1875)
1944 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
1954 – Archduke Carl-Christian of Austria
1988 – Princess Maria Laura of Austria-Este, Princess of Belgium


1214 – Michael IV, Patriarch of Constantinople
1278 – King Otakar II of Bohemia
1346 – Killed in the Battle of Crécy:
Charles II of Alençon (b. 1297)
Louis I of Flanders (b. 1304)
John of Bohemia (b. 1296)
Rudolph, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1320)
1551 – Margaret Leijonhufvud, queen of Gustav I of Sweden (b. 1516)
1850 – Louis-Philippe of France (b. 1773)