43 BC – Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul.
1561 – An 18-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, returns to Scotland after spending 13 years in France.
1745 – Prince Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard in Glenfinnan – the start of the Second Jacobite Rebellion, known as “the 45”.
1772 – Gustavus III of Sweden tages a Coup d’état, in which he assumes power and enacts a new constitution that divides power between the Riksdag and the King.

Births:

232 – Marcus Aurelius Probus, Roman emperor (d. 282)
1342 – Katharine of Bohemia, Duchess of Bavaria (d. 1395)
1557 – Friedrich I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608)
1596 – Elizabeth Stuart, Electress Palatine and Queen of Bohemia (d. 1662)

Deaths:

14 – Augustus, Roman Emperor (b. 63 BC)
1186 – Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany (b. 1158)
1245 – Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (b. 1195)
1284 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I of England (b. 1273)
1493 – Friedrich III, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1415)

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