1054 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland and defeats Macbeth, King of Scotland somewhere north of the Firth of Forth.
1189 – Friedrich Barbarossa arrives at Niš, the capital of Serbian King Stefan Nemanja, during the Third Crusade.
1214 – Battle of Bouvines : Philip II of France decisively defeats Imperial, English and Flemish armies, effectively ending John of England’s Angevin Empire.
1900 – Kaiser Wilhelm II makes a speech comparing Germans to Huns; for years afterwards, “Hun” would be a disparaging name for Germans.


432 – Pope Celestine I
1101 – Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (b. 1074)
1276 – King James I of Aragon (b. 1208)
1365 – Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (b. 1339)