1298 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk – King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town of Falkirk.
1456 – Ottoman Wars in Europe: Siege of Belgrade – John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire.
1461 – Louis XI becomes King of France
1484 – Battle of Lochmaben Fair – A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany’s brother James III of Scotland; Douglas is captured.
1499 – Battle of Dornach – The Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I.
1706 – The Acts of Union 1707 are agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which, when passed by each countries’ Parliaments, lead to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.


1210 – Joan of England, Queen of Scots, wife of Alexander II of Scotland (d. 1238)
1478 – King Philip I of Castile (d. 1506)
1510 – Alessandro de’ Medici, Duke of Florence (d. 1537)
1535 – Katarina Stenbock, wife of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1621)
1848 – Adolf Friedrich V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1914)


1461 – Charles VII of France (b. 1403)
1832 – Napoleon II, Emperor of the French and King of Rome (b. 1811)